The complex interaction between the filling of the bladder and the emptying of urine leaves plenty of room for functional disorders of the bladder. Among many other factors, changes in the bladder or prostate, neurological or metabolic disorders, or medication sides effects may cause overactive bladder. The diagnosis can be highly complex and may include laboratory examinations such as cystoscopy and urodynamics.
An overactive bladder is also called an irritable bladder and is characterised by symptoms such as a strong urge to urinate with or without incontinence, frequent urination, and nocturnal urination. There are no obvious physical causes in the diagnosis. Treatment is usually carried out with medication.